1. Team work
  2. Brainstorming and such
  3. Advantages of constraints with regard to project.
  4. Exercise: Start with same assets and what can you come up with.
  5. Presentation: Guy Kawasaki, et al. On what to do and not. Steve Kosslyn.
  6. When do we teach research skills?
  7. Question of balance between foundational skills and learning on the fly, experiential learning. Is there a danger of going off track?
  8. How much can we be open and flexible and still develop whole student and have room for all to get their OWN education?
  9. How do you design a course that will challenge (in the right way) a bunch of students who are good at getting As.

Seven Steps (Universal Traveler)

  1. Accept the problem
  2. Analyze - Research
  3. Define
  4. Ideate
  5. Select
  6. Implement
  7. Evaluate

Eight Fold Way in PPOL

  1. Define the Problem
  2. Assemble Some Evidence
  3. Construct the Alternatives
  4. Select the Criteria
  5. Project the Outcomes
  6. Confront the Trade-offs
  7. Decide
  8. Tell Your Story


  1. Inspiration/Research
  2. Ideation
  3. Implementation
    1. Prototype
    2. Feedback
    3. Iterate

Business 6 steps

  1. Identify the goal, wish, problem or challenge you want to work on.
  2. Gather data.
  3. Clarify the problem.
  4. Generate ideas.
  5. Select and strengthen solutions.
    1. "PPC" technique, in which the group lists the "pluses, potentials and concerns" of the most promising ideas. The PPC technique includes the following steps:
      1. Take an idea and state it in the form of a specific idea phrase, starting with "What I see us doing is …" For example, "What I see us doing is developing a questionnaire to send to the business units to determine their financial needs."
      2. List at least three good things about that idea.
      3. List the potentials, or future gains, that might result if the idea were implemented. For example, "If we distributed a questionnaire, we would have a better idea how to provide service to the business units."
      4. List the concerns about the idea, stating the concern as a problem statement that can be solved. For example, if you're worried about the cost of producing, distributing and evaluating questionnaires, you might state your concern as, "How can we reduce the costs associated with the questionnaires?"
      5. Generate a list of ways to overcome your concerns about the idea. For instance, one way you might overcome the cost concern is to distribute the questionnaire online.
  6. Develop an improved statement of the solution.


  1. Clarify and identify the problem
  2. Research the problem
  3. Formulate creative challenges
  4. Generate ideas
  5. Combine and evaluate the ideas
  6. Draw up an action plan
  7. Do it! (implement the ideas)

The Osborne-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process

  1. Objective Finding: Identify Goal, Wish, Challenge
  2. Fact Finding: Gather Data
  3. Problem Finding: Clarify the Problem
  4. Idea Finding: Generate Ideas
  5. Solution Finding: Select & Strengthen Solutions
  6. Acceptance Finding: Plan for Action

Standard Rational Problem Solving

  1. Identify Problem
  2. Generate Options
  3. Evaluate Options
  4. Select Option


  1. Creativity Of Constraints
  2. Counterfactual Thinking
  3. Brainstorming
  4. Preserving Ambiguity
  5. Analogy
  6. Hypothetical Question
  7. Thought Experiment
  8. Creative Intuition
  9. Abstraction
  10. Serendipity

Osborn (1953)

Perhaps the origin of IDEO/design thinking's coverge/diverge cycle. Osborn is the “O” from the ad agency BBDO.

  • Divergent Thinking: Generating lots of options
  • Convergent Thinking: Evaluating options, making decisions
  • Brainstorming
    • Defer Judgment | Combine and Build | Seek Wild Ideas | Go for Quantity